How does TCP generate Pseudo-self-similarity?
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Long-range dependence has been observed in many recent Internet traffic measurements. In addition, some recent studies have shown that under certain network conditions, TCP itself can produce traffic that exhibits dependence over limited timescales, even in the absence of higher-level variability. In this paper, we use a simple Markovian model to argue that when the loss rate is relatively high, TCP's adaptive congestion control mechanism indeed generates traffic with OFF periods exhibiting power-law shape over several timescales and thus introduces pseudo-long-range dependence into the overall traffic. Moreover, we observe that more variable initial retransmission timeout values for different packets introduces more variable packet inter-arrival times, which increases the burstiness of the overall traffic. We can thus explain why a single TCP connection can produce a time-series that can be misidentified as self-similar using standard tests.