Nonlinear Acoustics in Underwater and Biomedical Applications: Array Performance Degradation and Time Reversal Invariance
Hallaj, Ibrahim M.
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This dissertation describes a model for acoustic propagation in inhomogeneous flu- ids, and explores the focusing by arrays onto targets under various conditions. The work explores the use of arrays, in particular the time reversal array, for underwater and biomedical applications. Aspects of propagation and phasing which can lead to reduced focusing effectiveness are described. An acoustic wave equation was derived for the propagation of finite-amplitude waves in lossy time-varying inhomogeneous fluid media. The equation was solved numerically in both Cartesian and cylindrical geometries using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. It was found that time reversal arrays are sensitive to several debilitating factors. Focusing ability was determined to be adequate in the presence of temporal jitter in the time reversed signal only up to about one-sixth of a period. Thermoviscous absorption also had a debilitating effect on focal pressure for both linear and nonlinear propagation. It was also found that nonlinearity leads to degradation of focal pressure through amplification of the received signal at the array, and enhanced absorption in the shocked waveforms. This dissertation also examined the heating effects of focused ultrasound in a tissue-like medium. The application considered is therapeutic heating for hyperther- mia. The acoustic model and a thermal model for tissue were coupled to solve for transient and steady temperature profiles in tissue-like media. The Pennes bioheat equation was solved using the FDTD method to calculate the temperature fields in tissue-like media from focused acoustic sources. It was found that the temperature-dependence of the medium's background prop- erties can play an important role in the temperature predictions. Finite-amplitude effects contributed excess heat when source conditions were provided for nonlinear ef- fects to manifest themselves. The effect of medium heterogeneity was also found to be important in redistributing the acoustic and temperature fields, creating regions with hotter and colder temperatures than the mean by local scattering and lensing action. These temperature excursions from the mean were found to increase monotonically with increasing contrast in the medium's properties.