Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorHeath, Lauraen_US
dc.contributor.authorConway, Susanen_US
dc.contributor.authorJones, Lauraen_US
dc.contributor.authorSemrau, Katherineen_US
dc.contributor.authorNakamura, Kyleen_US
dc.contributor.authorWalter, Janen_US
dc.contributor.authorDecker, W. Donen_US
dc.contributor.authorHong, Jasonen_US
dc.contributor.authorChen, Thomasen_US
dc.contributor.authorHeil, Marinthaen_US
dc.contributor.authorSinkala, Mosesen_US
dc.contributor.authorKankasa, Chipepoen_US
dc.contributor.authorThea, Donald M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKuhn, Louiseen_US
dc.contributor.authorMullins, James I.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAldrovandi, Grace M.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-01-11T21:44:36Z
dc.date.available2012-01-11T21:44:36Z
dc.date.issued2010-4-20en_US
dc.identifier.citationHeath, Laura, Susan Conway, Laura Jones, Katherine Semrau, Kyle Nakamura, Jan Walter, W. Don Decker, Jason Hong, Thomas Chen, Marintha Heil, Moses Sinkala, Chipepo Kankasa, Donald M. Thea, Louise Kuhn, James I. Mullins, Grace M. Aldrovandi. "Restriction of HIV-1 Genotypes in Breast Milk Does Not Account for the Population Transmission Genetic Bottleneck That Occurs following Transmission" PLoS ONE 5(4): e10213. (2010)en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2144/3251
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND. Breast milk transmission of HIV-1 remains a major route of pediatric infection. Defining the characteristics of viral variants to which breastfeeding infants are exposed is important for understanding the genetic bottleneck that occurs in the majority of mother-to-child transmissions. The blood-milk epithelial barrier markedly restricts the quantity of HIV-1 in breast milk, even in the absence of antiretroviral drugs. The basis of this restriction and the genetic relationship between breast milk and blood variants are not well established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. We compared 356 HIV-1 subtype C gp160 envelope (env) gene sequences from the plasma and breast milk of 13 breastfeeding women. A trend towards lower viral population diversity and divergence in breast milk was observed, potentially indicative of clonal expansion within the breast. No differences in potential N-linked glycosylation site numbers or in gp160 variable loop amino acid lengths were identified. Genetic compartmentalization was evident in only one out of six subjects in whom contemporaneously obtained samples were studied. However, in samples that were collected 10 or more days apart, six of seven subjects were classified as having compartmentalized viral populations, highlighting the necessity of contemporaneous sampling for genetic compartmentalization studies. We found evidence of CXCR4 co-receptor using viruses in breast milk and blood in nine out of the thirteen subjects, but no evidence of preferential localization of these variants in either tissue. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE. Despite marked restriction of HIV-1 quantities in milk, our data indicate intermixing of virus between blood and breast milk. Thus, we found no evidence that a restriction in viral genotype diversity in breast milk accounts for the genetic bottleneck observed following transmission. In addition, our results highlight the rapidity of HIV-1 env evolution and the importance of sample timing in analyses of gene flow.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institute of Child Health and Human Development; National Institutes of Health (R01 HD 39611, R01 HD 40777); International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group (U01 AI068632-01); National Institutes of Health Cellular, Biochemical; Molecular Sciences Training Program Grant (T 32 067587)en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.rightsHeath et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en_US
dc.titleRestriction of HIV-1 Genotypes in Breast Milk Does Not Account for the Population Transmission Genetic Bottleneck That Occurs following Transmissionen_US
dc.typearticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0010213en_US
dc.identifier.pubmedid20422033en_US
dc.identifier.pmcid2857876en_US


Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record