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dc.contributor.authorPeters, Junenette L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKubzansky, Lauraen_US
dc.contributor.authorMcNeely, Eileenen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchwartz, Joelen_US
dc.contributor.authorSpiro, Avronen_US
dc.contributor.authorSparrow, Daviden_US
dc.contributor.authorWright, Robert O.en_US
dc.contributor.authorNie, Huilingen_US
dc.contributor.authorHu, Howarden_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-01-09T14:19:06Z
dc.date.available2012-01-09T14:19:06Z
dc.date.issued2007-08en_US
dc.identifier.citationPeters, Junenette L., Laura Kubzansky, Eileen McNeely, Joel Schwartz, Avron Spiro, David Sparrow, Robert O. Wright, Huiling Nie, Howard Hu. "Stress as a Potential Modifier of the Impact of Lead Levels on Blood Pressure: The Normative Aging Study" Environmental Health Perspectives 115(8): 1154-1159. (2007)en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2144/2745
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND. Lead exposure and psychological stress have been independently associated with hypertension in various populations, and animal studies suggest that when they co-occur, their effects may be exacerbated. OBJECTIVES. We examined whether psychological stress modifies the impact of cumulative lead exposure (measured as bone lead levels) on hypertension and blood pressure in Boston-area community-exposed men participating in the Normative Aging Study. METHODS. We evaluated the modifying effect of stress on lead exposure on baseline hypertension status (513 participants) and on blood pressure in those without hypertension (237 participants), cross-sectionally. In baseline nonhypertensives, we examined the same risk factors in relation to prospective risk of developing hypertension. RESULTS. Cross-sectional analysis revealed a positive interaction between stress and tibia lead on systolic blood pressure, after adjusting for age, body mass index, family history of high blood pressure, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and nutritional factors. In prospective multivariate analyses, high stress also modified the effect of tibia lead and patella lead on the risk of developing hypertension. Those reporting high stress had 2.66 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-4.95] times the risk of developing hypertension per standard deviation increase in tibia lead and had 2.64 (95% CI, 1.42-4.92) times the risk per standard deviation increase in patella lead. CONCLUSION. To our knowledge, these are the first analyses to look at interactive effects of stress and lead on hypertension in humans. These results suggest that the effect of lead on hypertension is most pronounced among highly stressed individuals, independent of demographic and behavioral risk factors.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health (R01-ES05257, P20-MD000501, P42-ES05947, GCRC M01-RR02635, ES03918-02); United States Department of Veterans Affairsen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectBlood pressureen_US
dc.subjectBone leaden_US
dc.subjectHypertensionen_US
dc.subjectPsychosocial stressen_US
dc.titleStress as a Potential Modifier of the Impact of Lead Levels on Blood Pressure: The Normative Aging Studyen_US
dc.typearticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1289/ehp.10002en_US
dc.identifier.pubmedid17687441en_US
dc.identifier.pmcid1940093en_US


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