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dc.contributor.authorGrossberg, Stephenen_US
dc.date.accessioned2011-11-14T19:00:10Z
dc.date.available2011-11-14T19:00:10Z
dc.date.issued1999-01en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2144/2220
dc.description.abstractThe processes whereby our brains continue to learn about a changing world in a stable fashion throughout life are proposed to lead to conscious experiences. These processes include the learning of top-down expectations, the matching of these expectations against bottom-up data, the focusing of attention upon the expected clusters of information, and the development of resonant states between bottom-up and top-down processes as they reach an attentive consensus between what is expected and what is there in the outside world. It is suggested that all conscious states in the brain are resonant states, and that these resonant states trigger learning of sensory and cognitive representations. The model which summarize these concepts are therefore called Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models. Psychophysical and neurobiological data in support of ART are presented from early vision, visual object recognition, auditory streaming, variable-rate speech perception, somatosensory perception, and cognitive-emotional interactions, among others. It is noted that ART mechanisms seem to be operative at all levels of the visual system, and it is proposed how these mechanisms are realized by known laminar circuits of visual cortex. It is predicted that the same circuit realization of ART mechanisms will be found in the laminar circuits of all sensory and cognitive neocortex. Concepts and data are summarized concerning how some visual percepts may be visibly, or modally, perceived, whereas amoral percepts may be consciously recognized even though they are perceptually invisible. It is also suggested that sensory and cognitive processing in the What processing stream of the brain obey top-down matching and learning laws that arc often complementary to those used for spatial and motor processing in the brain's Where processing stream. This enables our sensory and cognitive representations to maintain their stability a.s we learn more about the world, while allowing spatial and motor representations to forget learned maps and gains that are no longer appropriate as our bodies develop and grow from infanthood to adulthood. Procedural memories are proposed to be unconscious because the inhibitory matching process that supports these spatial and motor processes cannot lead to resonance.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDefense Advance Research Projects Agency; Office of Naval Research (N00014-95-1-0409, N00014-95-1-0657); National Science Foundation (IRI-97-20333)en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherBoston University Center for Adaptive Systems and Department of Cognitive and Neural Systemsen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesBU CAS/CNS Technical Reports;CAS/CNS-TR-1999-002en_US
dc.rightsCopyright 1999 Boston University. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that: 1. The copies are not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage; 2. the report title, author, document number, and release date appear, and notice is given that copying is by permission of BOSTON UNIVERSITY TRUSTEES. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires a fee and / or special permission.en_US
dc.subjectLearning
dc.subjectExpectation
dc.subjectAttention
dc.subjectAdaptive Resonance Theory (ART)
dc.subjectNeural networks
dc.subjectProcedural memory
dc.subjectConsciousness
dc.subjectObject recognition
dc.subjectSpeech perception
dc.titleBrain Learning, Attention, and Consciousnessen_US
dc.typeTechnical Reporten_US
dc.rights.holderBoston University Trusteesen_US


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